Characters can crouch or go prone to make themselves smaller targets. A crouching character gains +1 Target against ranged attacks, while a prone character gains +2. However, these same bonuses apply as penalties against melee attacks. These bonuses do not exactly stack with cover. Instead, ignore the bonus (and penalty) from crouching or prone, and instead increase the cover value by one step (while crouching) or two steps (while prone). So, a character crouching in an open field gains +1 Target from ranged attacks but -1 from melee attacks, while a character crouching behind light cover gains +2 Target against all attacks (the light cover counts as medium). Crouching or going prone each take 1 second. Going from one to the other takes a second as well. Standing up from a crouch takes 1 second, standing up from prone takes 2.